At-home closed-book assessments

An example of this approach, plus: pros and cons; requirements; resistance to academic misconduct and suggestions for making this approach more robust.


These tend to be short time-limited assessments, attempting to replicate on-campus exams that would usually be invigilated in an exam hall.

Requires online proctoring to increase confidence that it is truly closed-book, and yet even that cannot guarantee security.


Reassuring to examiners and external accrediting bodies.


Difficult to guarantee students are complying with closed-book instructions.

All the risks of open-book assessments.


Often accompanied by online proctoring, without which it is difficult to be certain that closed-book rules are being followed. Otherwise relying on trust alone. Online proctoring is widely used by some overseas institutions, and to a limited extent in the UK. It is neither straightforward nor foolproof; see Minimising cheating.

Some exam-delivery technology can lock down your operating system and prevent use of the Internet on the device used for taking the exam. It cannot (without proctoring) prevent use of books, or searches on other devices, though time limitation reduces opportunities for that.

Resistance to academic misconduct

More resistant than other forms only if you add in high-resource requirements as above.

Making it more robust

If you are looking at these difficult options it is worth also reading or re-reading the pages on

Assessment Design

Minimising cheating

Open-book exams - long form, and short form